Mr. Ali Tamer Ürüm enjoys tour guiding and travel operations for interested tourists, coming from all over the world, giving them information about the friendly and nice people of Turkey, of Istanbul, the Head City of Culture, Europe 2010) and of Sports, Europe2012, the World Cultures and Tourism Center (Istanbul 2021) telling them nice sacred and secret historical stories, of Çanakkale, Gallipoli, Troy, Pergamum, Izmir, Ephesus,Bodrum Halicarnassos, the World Culture Heritages, Aegean and Mediterranean Coasts Historical and Natural sites and cities as well as Cappadocia, Urfa, Mardin, Adıyaman, Malatya, Van, Kars, Blacksea Coast and other sightseeing places in wonderful Turkey.
Licensed Professional Expert Tour Guide Ali Tamer Ürüm was born on 7.th of June 1947 in Karşıyaka, İzmir, Turkey. After having completed the primary and secondary schooling in İzmir. he has graduated from the Faculty of Communication of Ankara University, Turkey, from the universities and language courses in Austria, England, France, Germany, where from the Free University of Berlin he has achieved the Ph.D degree in social sciences. He has also studied at the universities of Salzburg and Vienna, Austria, the Hull University in England and "Alliance Française" in Paris.
He worked as a lecturer at the Aegean University, İzmir. Turkey
Ali Tamer Ürüm has been authorized officially by the Culture and Tourism Ministry of the Turkish Republic as a professional tourist guide since 1987. He worked already in Antalya, İzmir, Selçuk, Ephesus, Kusadasi, Dydima, Bodrum, Marmaris, Fethiye, Canakkale and Istanbul for long periods as a licensed professional expert tour guide.
For any detailed tour request and questions, please send me an email or directly text/call via whatsapp :
For any detailed tour request and questions, please send me an email or directly text/call via whatsapp :
Let`s start with some logistic and historic information about our world-city..
Turkey is a bridge of cultures in history, Istanbul is the most culturally layered city which always carries its specialty for the world. Ancient, Roman, Ottoman, and Turkish Republic layers of cultures are together to be observed in this great city. Palaces, towers, churches, and mosques. Istanbul is also a natural wonder with its lovely phosphorus river-like sea dividing Asia and Europe, golden horn surrounded by deep history and ruins, lovely Mediterranean-like prince islands, and Europe-like forests.
Istanbul is situated at the meeting point between 29.th longitude and 41.st parallel, between European and Asian Continents, embracing one another, on each side of Bosphorus Strait, surrounded by the Black Sea on the North, the Marmara Sea on the South, the Tekirdag Province on the West, the Kocaeli Province on the East, divided by the Golden Horn into two old city districts on the European side and has an area of 5300 sq. km (of which 1930 sq. km is urbanized city) and about 15 million inhabitants originating from different regions of Turkey. Istanbul is a major destination for people and the home of 30 universities.
The climate of Istanbul is quite changeable from time to time and from one place to another. As a region, Istanbul is located on the intersection of the Black Sea and Mediterranean climates. The Summer is between June and October, sunny, warm, or hot in the midday (average temp. 82° F (28° C) ) The Spring starts in April, ends in June, sunny, and sometimes rainy. Autumn is between October and December, sunny and rainy. The winter passes between December and April, sometimes sunny, rainy, and snowy for about one week's time only, temperatures fall seldom below O° C.
Archeologists found some traces from the stone age nearby Istanbul and also from the bronze age, which are the remainings of old settlements on the Asian Part of the City. Recently a neolithic settlement and a family grave have been discovered within the old city harbor, which might be as old as 8000 years. On the Asian side, the archeologists have found a Phrygian Settlement, which might be 3100 years old. According to a local legend and soothsaying (oracle) from the Apollo Temple of Delphi Island, Byzas, who was the leader of a migrant group from Magera, Greece, should have come to this area in the year 660 BC and let build a city "on the other side of the city of blind people", as it was prophesied in the oracle. As they were on the European side, they should have seen a settlement on the Asian side of Bosphorus. Byzas must have told to his tribe, that the people of the other side settlement must be "blind", because they could not see the European side of the Bosphorus Strait, which was much more wonderful and suitable to settle. So he lets build there a city with his name, as Byzas-City, "Byzantion". The city becomes Roman territory after having been taken by Romans in the 2nd Century BC and later in the 4th Century AD has been renamed as "Nova Roma: New Rome" by the Roman Emperor Constantin the Great, whose name was given to the city as "Constantinopolis: City of Constantin " and from his name "Constantinople", "Stanpoli", finally "Istanbul".
During the reigns of Roman Emperors from 2.nd, until 6.th Century A.D. many buildings such as the Hippodrome, the Emperors' Palaces, the Underground Cisterns, the famous churches of Saint Irene (Holy Peace), Saint Sophia (Holy Wisdom), Chora (Church on the Outer Side of the City), etc. were built. Istanbul had been plundered by a gothic invasion in the 3rd century A.D and by the crusaders in the years between 1205 and 1250.
After having been organized by the efforts of the Virgin Mary, Saint John the Theologian, Saint Luke, Saint Paul, and other saints, in Antiochia and then mainly in Ephesus of Western Turkey, the Christianity had been accepted as one of the legal religions of the Roman state in the year 330 by Constantin the Great. The Emperor Theodosius the 2.nd had announced Christianity the sole and legal religion of the Eastern Roman State in the year 395.
The Ottomans have conquered Old Istanbul City in the year 1453 and made the city, their third capital until 1920, where they have built many mosques such as Fatih Mosque, Beyazid Mosque, Sultan Suleyman Mosque, Sultan Ahmet (Blue) Mosque, etc. and also bridges, streets, caravanserais, hospitals, libraries, ` Medrese ` (Koran Schools), sultans' and pashas' palaces (Such as Fatih Palace, Topkapi Palace, Dolmabahce Palace, Beylerbeyi Palace, Yildiz Palace, etc. on each side of the Bosphorus Strait.
For any detailed tour request and questions, please send me an email or directly text/call via whatsapp :
Let`s give some information about most popular places..
Museum of St. Sophia (Hagia Sophia): The former church of St. Sophia is the undisputed sovereign of Istanbul's First Hill. Constantin the Great is reputed to have built a basilica here in 325 on the site of a pagan temple. Destroyed twice by fire, it was rebuilt, from 532 to 537 by the Emperor Justinian, who dedicated it to the Holy Wisdom of God (in Greek, Hagia Sophia. The former church of St. Sophia dominates on Istanbul's first hill city (Acropolis) where the Roman emperor Constantin the Great has built the first basilica of Hagia Sophia, "Holy Wisdom" in 325 on the site of a pagan temple (Sun Got Helios Temple). After having been destroyed during a revolt in the year 402, the second Hagia Sophia was built by Theodosius the Second in 415. This church has also been crushed by some revolters during the Nicea Revolt in 532. The Roman emperor Justinianus has rebuilt the third "Hagia Sophia" as the greatest church of the World, between 532 and 537 after having been designed and planned by the architect Isidoros from Western Anatolian City, Miletos and Antemias from Tralles, by the work of some 10.000 skilled building workers and 1000 masters.Â Â It is one of the most remarkable buildings ever erected anywhere in the World. The finest materials are known from Rhodes, Rome, Ephesus, Thessaly, and even Africa have been brought for its construction. When the building was finished, the emperor Justinianus should have entered first from the Emperor's Gate and shouted " O Solomon I have built it bigger than You did!
Museum of St. Sophia (Hagia Sophia): The former church of St. Sophia is the undisputed sovereign of Istanbul's First Hill. Constantin the Great is reputed to have built a basilica here in 325 on the site of a pagan temple. Destroyed twice by fire, it was rebuilt, from 532 to 537 by the Emperor Justinian, who dedicated it to the Holy Wisdom of God (in Greek, Hagia Sophia. The former church of St. Sophia dominates on Istanbul's first hill city (Acropolis) where the Roman emperor Constantin the Great has built the first basilica of Hagia Sophia, "Holy Wisdom" in 325 on the site of a pagan temple (Sun Got Helios Temple). After having been destroyed during a revolt in the year 402, the second Hagia Sophia was built by Theodosius the Second in 415. This church has also been crushed by some revolters during the Nicea Revolt in 532. The Roman emperor Justinianus has rebuilt the third "Hagia Sophia" as the greatest church of the World, between 532 and 537 after having been designed and planned by the architect Isidoros from Western Anatolian City, Miletos and Antemias from Tralles, by the work of some 10.000 skilled building workers and 1000 masters.It is one of the most remarkable buildings ever erected anywhere in the World. The finest materials are known from Rhodes, Rome, Ephesus, Thessaly, and even Africa have been brought for its construction. When the building was finished, the emperor Justinianus should have entered first from the Emperor's Gate and shouted " O Solomon I have built it bigger than You did!
The dimensions; The area of Hagia Sophia is 100 x 70 m: 7000 m2. The number of columns: 107, of which 40 at the ground floor 67 at the upper floor, which was for lady prayers and Roman empress. The height of the main dom is 56.m, the diameter of the main dom is 31-32 m. Between 40 ribs around the dom, there are 40 windows.
The minarets were added after the Turkish conquest in 1453 when St. Sophia was converted into a mosque by Sultan Mehmet II. the Conqueror, whose first act on taking Constantinople was to visit St. Sophia. The first Islamic ritual prayers of the new rulers were performed here. The famous architect Sinan strengthened the buttresses in the 16.th century, and the most recent restoration carried out in the 19.th century by the architect Fossati. In 1935 Ataturk, the founder and the first president of the modern Turkish Republic proclaimed St. Sophia as a museum. In 2020 court concluded to serve as a Mosque as the name ` Aya Sofya Vakf-i Kebir Camii `.
Ancient residence of the Ottoman sultans, Topkapi Palace was built by Mehmet II.., the Conqueror between 1459 - 1465, and named as "New Palace": "Saray-i Cedide", the first palace was built by the same sultan at the place where the Beyazit Tower and the University of Istanbul are located now.
The first Court is entered through the Imperial Gate (Bab-i Humayun), built-in 1478. Then come gardens, lawns, and sweeping trees, providing the right dreamlike atmosphere for penetrating further into the mysterious universe of the Sultans.
To the right of the gate lie the enormous kitchens built by Mehmet the Conqueror and Beyazit II. in the 15th century. Today the kitchens house a precious collection of Chinese Porcelain as well as European crystal and porcelain. There are 10,512 pieces of Chinese porcelain alone at Topkapi, of which the majority has to be kept in storage.
If nothing else, you must visit the harem. In origin of the word means "sacred" or "set apart". The sultan, his mother, wives (of whom he was allowed four), and innumerable concubines all lived in this dim network of staircases, corridors, bedrooms, and bathrooms, in a stifling world of ambitious intrigue. The main preoccupation of the womenfolk was to produce a male child and then to assure his accession to the throne. It was also a claustrophobic, unnatural world of jealousy and unhappiness; you may sense the troubled atmosphere lingering in the dusty sunlight and complicated decor.
Every succeeding sultan added something to this palace, which gradually became a small royal city, comprising Sultan's harem, Ottoman governmental building "Divan", mosques, bath-houses, money mint, schools, libraries, residences, kitchens, gardens, and fountains, built around four main courtyards.
The great gate to the first open-air hall, which was open to all people and free to enter, had been originally named "Bab i Ali: High Gate" which became then the well-known title of the Ottoman Government". The High Gate has been renamed later as "Topkapi", because of the canons laying just after the gate on the ground. The name "Topkapi" means "canon gate", which has identified the palace as "Topkapi Palace: Canon Gate Palace".
After having entered through the "High Gate" or "Canon Gate", you can come to the first open-air hall, where you would see the Hagia Irene Church Building (The Holy Peace) first, which was originally built by Constantin the Great in 330 and rebuilt by Justinianus in the year 536. This church had been converted into a store and arsenal building, later into a museum by the ottoman sultans. The Hagia Irene is now a museum and a concert hall for music and art festivals in Istanbul.
You can enter into the second Court hall through the Imperial Gate (Bab-i Humayun), built-in 1478. To the right of the gate lie the enormous kitchens built by the great architect Sinan in the name of Sultan Mehmet II the Conqueror and Beyazit II. in the 15th century. Today in the kitchens house a precious collection of mainly Chinese and few Japanese Porcelain is being exhibited. There are 10,512 pieces of Chinese porcelain alone at Topkapi, of which the majority has to be kept in storage.
Next to the "Porcelain Section" you can see "the Pavillon for Silver Wares", for example, the silver model of "the Fountain of Sultan Ahmet the 3.rd", some silver gifts from other countries, etc. Passing to the second open-air hall you can enjoy some very old maple trees (estimated about 550 years old) next to the Gate of Felicity: Bab-i Saadet, where the sultan was standing with the holy flag of Mohammed for some religious or official ceremonies, in which some domestic and foreign guests were taking part.
On the other side is the ottoman governmental "Divan" building, where the Ottoman government under the leadership of Grand Vesir was meeting at least twice a week, to decide about political and juridical matters, which the Sultan was directing in a secured and safe place behind a metal curtain and window, in his "Tower of Justice: Adalet Kulesi" at the Harem building side. Behind the "Divan" was the Sultan's Harem, a forbidden zone for all the others besides the black and white eunuchs servants, the wives and children of the Sultan, The word "Harem" means "sacred" or "set apart" (strictly private). The sultan, his mother, wives (of whom he was allowed four), and innumerable concubines all lived in this dim network of staircases, corridors, bedrooms, and bathrooms, in a stifling world of ambitious intrigue. The main preoccupation of the womenfolk was to produce a male child and then to assure his accession to the throne. It was also a claustrophobic, unnatural world of jealousy and unhappiness; you may sense the troubled atmosphere lingering in the dusty sunlight and complicated decor.
After having passed through "the gate of felicity: Bab-i Saade", you can enter to "the Audience Hall" or "Acceptance Hall", where sultan was sitting in his throne and accepting his guests with their precious gifts. At the third open air hall, there is the library of Sultan Ahmet III. from the year 1730. On the right from the entrance gate, the sultans' costumes can be seen in the first room. In the next rooms, which were originally built as accountancy and administration offices of the ottoman sultans, You can see some examples of the sultans treasures with extremely precious jewelry such as the "Kasikci Elmas", one of 22 most precious diamonds of the World.
On the other side, next to palace's sun dial, made of marble, the holy relicts of Jewish, Christian and Muslim faith can be seen, such as the holy stab of Moses, through which the Profet Moses has opened a passage in the Red Sea, the sword of the Profet David, the arm and the skull of St. John the Baptist, the beard, the foot print, the sword and costume of Muslim Profet Mohammed, of the califs, Ebu Bekr, Omar, Osman, Ali, the golden cover of the holy black meteorite "Hacer ul Eswed", the door and keys of Caaba etc.
When You pass the gates to the summer kiosks of the sultans, you can see the small mosque and the Mecidiye Kiosk, which is now the Konyali Restaurant, near of which is the Physicians' Pavilion, where the sultan's physicians, most of them Jewish Ottomans, were preparing their medicaments. Further on a terrace there is the sultan's loge, where sultan was greeting the people in the Gulhane Park especially for Ramadan Days and rituals. In "the Circumcision Kiosk" next door were the sultans sons circumcised. On the other side there is the Bagdad Summer Kioks, which was built by Sultan Murad the IV.th.. The Revan Kioks, where the turbans of sultans and books had been kept, was a resting room for Sultan and his guests. The palace's orchard and vegetable field was the area on the rear side of these kiosks, where "the Gulhane Green Park" is now.
Call it what you will, the Grand Bazaar -Turkish as Kapalı Çarşı(Covered Bazaar) is like the labyrinth of Minos, looks like Ali Baba's cave and its treasures sounding like the trading post for the Tower of Babel with hunderds of different languages. This is the biggest oriental market in the world. It's like a complete city, with many domed roofs. There are quiet alleys, lively crossroads and main streets. Sultan Mehmet II. the Conqueror had built a covered market on the site in 1461. I t has been reconstructed several times after destruction by fire and earthquakes. Nowadays it contains over 4000 shops, as well as banks, cafes, restaurants and mosques. The most ancient part is the Old Bedesten at the centre, kept for more valuable merchandise since it can be securely locked at night. The Turkish Letherwares and carpets are world famous for their finesse.
Even if you have no intention to buy anything, visit the "Grand Basaar: Kapali Charshi" for a distillation of Istanbul and Turkey. It's a kaleidoscope of constantly-changing brilliance. Voices call out in a dozen languages. Water-sellers come jangling by; incredibly strong men, hamal, lumber past, harnessed into a kind of leather saddle and transporting anything up to a sofa and chairs on their backs. There is a wide range of merchandise in the Grand Bazaar all of oriental origin; including clothing, dishes, carpets, spice, leather and souvenirs made of different materials such as gold, silver, copper, wood etc.
Three exceptional museums are placed conveniently next to one another in a nearby courtyard in Istanbul. Even if you're not a history lover, don't miss the Archeological Museum (Arkeoloji Muzesi). It's one of the most famous in the world, especially reputed for its collection of sarcophagi. Among them is the sarcophagus of Alexander the Great. The sculptures' collection of this museum is immense. The ceramic museum next door is also very interesting.
The Museum of the Ancient Orient (Eski Sark Eserleri Muzesi) displays a rich collection of objects from ancient Near and Middle Eastern civilizations. Among them are Babylonian panels from the time of King Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.), statuettes from Mesopotamia, and clay tablets bearing Hammurabi's law code and ancient inscriptions all within the Archeological Museum of Istanbul.
Panorama 1453 museum is for the travelers interested in the history of conquered of Constantinople by Ottomans and Fatih the Conquerer with its visual and audio demonstrations
Kariye Museum (previous The Chora Church and Kariye Mosque) holds one of the most amazing figurative mosaics works from Byzantium (East Roman) times, located in Edirnekapı. In 2020 court concluded to serve as a Mosque.
For Classic, Modern and Contemporary Arts: Istanbul State Fine Arts Museum, Istanbul Modern Museum, Pera Museum, Sabancı Museum, Koç Contemporary Museum can be counted to give a visit for travellers interested in arts.
Miniaturk Museum is also interesting to see Turkey`s historically icon buildings on a small scale together.
It's a city of churches, mosques, palaces but also lovely towers!
Istanbul has many towers with different, interesting stories..
Designed by the influence from an Ottoman cannon directing the sky` Beyazıt Tower ` has 256 stairs and is 85 meters tall, located in the old town near Grand Bazaar. Istanbul was suffering from many fires before where the buildings were mostly wooden, when a fire happens a fire-light was set in this tower, a cannon to be fired and an official dialogue to be: - `Lord! You have a new kid as Lord answers - `Male or Female ?' and if the answer to be male fire to be on the Asian side and female for the European side.
This tower was also used in Republic times for showing the weather status for tomorrow. If the tower was green to be rainy, red for the snow, yellow for the foggy, blue for a sunny upcoming day which is still in use. The tower is a museum dating from 2013. A city gossip tells this tower is jealous of the love between Galata and Maiden Towers...
Galata tower, which saw 2 empires is the most popular sight-seeing tower in Istanbul. The first wooden-tower construction date is not clear but either in 507 A.C. Justinianus or 528 A.C. Anastasios. Served as a light-tower and called as `Great Tower` and also later as `Jesus Tower` in Genoian times. It was demolished in latin invation in 1204 A.C. and rebuilt in 1348 A.C. with actual stones.
After Ottoman rule, it was ruined by the earthquake 1509 A.C. and renovated by the famous architect Hayrettin. In the Ottoman rule, it was partly a prison for a short time and an observatory working for science. The most popular figure was connected to this tower is Hazarfen Ahmet Çelebi who as told flew with artificial wings from this tower to the Asian side of Istanbul at 1632 A.C. (historically questionable)
In Turkish as `Maiden Tower - Kız Kulesi`, built on a small islandlike rock and near to the Asian side, the maiden tower has a very old history dating 410 B.C. firstly constructed in Athenian commander Alkibiades to check the ships passing in Bosphorus. By 314 B.C. commander Chares converted the tower to a memorial for his wife.
The location of the tower was very strategic where as the tower was again converted to a check-tower in Emperor Manuel Comnenos ruling time (1143-1178 A.C.) In Ottoman period it was firstly demolished by Fatih the conquerer and used as lighthouse and celebration cannon fire place, more than guarding. In late Ottoman period it was also a quarantine island to isolate diseases from the city.
The most common known rumor is as the fortune tellers told the Byzantine King that his daughter would die of snake bites, the king built a house on the cliffs of the Maiden's Tower and placed his daughter here. However, a young soldier fell in love with the king's daughter, and one day he prepared a bunch of flowers to present to the princess. Sadly, the snake, hidden among the flowers, stung and killed the unfortunate princess, and the prophecy came true.
The last story told about the tower, there is an expression left. According to legend, Battal Gazi raided the Maiden Tower with his soldiers and kidnapped the treasures hiding in the tower and the daughter of Üsküdar Tekfuru. After a tight chase, Battal Gazi dodged his chase and jumped away from Üsküdar. This story was the inspiration for the phrase ” Atı alan Üsküdar`ı geçti - Who grabbed the horse passed beyond Uskudar ” which means : who has the oppurtunity passed to another level or so.
Although Sultan Abdulhamid II moved to Yıldız Palace for security reasons shortly after he succeeded to the throne in 1876, he did not neglect Dolmabahçe Palace. There he continued to celebrate special occasions and entertain his guests.
He did not forget Abdülhamit Dolmabahçe, known for his watch towers built in many cities of Anatolia, especially in Istanbul. Considering that the public should not miss the prayer times, to be aware of the fires and to learn the weather, Palace Architect Sarkis Balyan started this project..
Built in 1890-1895, this elegant structure cost 1 million lira 210 thousand 550 kuruş left from the treasury. It was built using the stones of the Aziziye Mosque, which was started to be built in Istanbul during the reign of Sultan Abdulaziz, but unfinished by the abdication of Abdulaziz.
The 27-meter-high tower, which was built in Baroque and Empiric style with curved decorations, had 94 steps. The floor of the staircase was made with colored stones and geometric shapes. Six stair steps were placed on each side of the tower and a two-storey fountain was placed on the corners. On the decorated second floor facade, in 1882, an Ottoman coat of arms was added by Abdulhamid II and carved into the marble. Access to the fourth floor was provided by the balconies with balconies rising above the simplier third floor.
Watchmaker Johann Meyer brought Paul Garnier watches from France to the fourth floor pediments and placed the machines on the third floor. The clock on the sea side was separate and the clocks on the other three were set at the same time. In 1979, the watches, which were partially translated into electronic systems, are established once a week. The Sultan Vahdettins flee, the death of Mustafa Kemal, the protests against USA Sixth Fleet as many important events happened within this tower, whereas 119 years has been guarding the neighborhood and Istanbul.
Yıldız Clock Tower, located in the Yıldız Palace complex in Beşiktaş, was built by architect Abdulhamid II in 1889-1890 by architect Sarkis Balyan. The tower, also known as the Hamidiye Clock Tower, is located in the garden of the Hamidiye Mosque, in Ottoman and Neo-Gothic style.
It is designed as octagonal with four corners with broken corners. With this design, the Yildiz Clock Tower was next to Hamidiye Mosque, a sacred eastern space, and sent greetings to the West.
The three-storey tower, 20 meters high, was in a tapering form from the bottom upwards as it reached towards the sky. There were four inscriptions on the first floor of the tower, a thermometer and barometer on the second floor and a clock room on the top floor decorated with clover leaf arched windows. The thermometer was written in the old Turkish as the condition of the air, such as the windshield, wind and rain.
The tower covered with a pointed and sliced dome covered the arched roof windows. A compass on its decorative roof and a windmill crowned at its peak underwent a repair in 1993.
The tower was one of the witnesses of the attempted assassination attempt against Abdulhamid II on 21 July 1905 by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation in front of the Hamidiye Mosque.
The four facades of the four-storey structure, which gradually narrowed upwards, were designed to match each other. Abdülmecid's tuğra was placed on the gate of the tower on the front facing the sea. The 15-meter-high tower stands out with its Ionian capitals and Empiric decorations.
After the fire in 1913, this elegant work, which was read Zenith on the dials in Turkish, was separated from the seaside during the road works of Adnan Menderes in the 1950s and placed in front of customs warehouses.
Sultan Abdulhamid II, his daughter Hatice Sultan caught diphtheria at the age of eight months and died, in memory of his Hamidiye Etfal Hospital was built.
Designed by Italian architect D’Aronco, this tower was built in the garden of the hospital in 1907 under the supervision of Mahmut Şükrü Bey, a teacher of Mühendishane-i Hümayun. In the same year, the Sultan added a mosque under the tower. Only two of the original structures of Etfal Hospital survived.
Red brick and white marble were used together on the facades of the square planned tower which is approximately 20 meters high. On the axis of the tower, there were high and pointed arched windows on each floor.
On the front of the tower, the exit of the clock room, which was provided by a spiral iron staircase, was placed in four inscriptions adorned by the monogram of Sultan Abdulhamid II.
The window section was placed in the clock arch area in the tower divided by a pair of gothic arches. From the publications of the period, it was understood that the tower clock showed alaturca and alafranga hours, the figures were painted with black on porcelain and the clock was illuminated at night.
The tower was terminated with a balcony-toast around the four sides The balcony section with marble railings was decoratively supported from below with a series of wedges. Thus, this tiny structure on the tower resembled a bowler hat extending into the sky.
The most interesting and worldwide known sites and places of this beautiful city are visited. The tours happen around places as Hypodrome: Horse Race Place and Hagia Sophia, which altogether are often called as "The Old City". Hagia Sophia, Museum of Archeology, Sultan Ahmet Mosque, Topkapi Serail, the University of Istanbul, The Grand Bazaar, Galata Bridge and in some special tours Galata Tower, Pera, Bosphorus Strait and Palaces etc. are visited. These tours are a great way to learn about the ancient past of Turkey.
In the cultural tours we concentrate on the cultural, historical places and buildings of old Istanbul. We spend enough time to see the cultural sights and places in details. The cultural tours are for the tourists who are enthusiastic about the cultural beauties of Istanbul.
In these tours, universities, educational and scientific institutions (students-teachers-professors etc.) participate. Schools, universities or scientific groups realise their special educational or academic programme while they visit cultural historical educational and scientific places and buildings in Istanbul, where there are 30 universities of different sciences disciplines.
Artist travelers participate In the fine arts tours. These tours include visits to famous places of Istanbul with art activities such drawings, oil and water colour paintings,sculpture and pottery makings, art photography or video film takings etc. During the fine arts tours artist tourists are able to make their drawings, paintings, potteries, sculptures, photographies or video films etc.